Civil Code of the Philippines(4)
Use of Surnames (n)
ARTICLE 364. Legitimate and legitimated children shall principally use the surname of the father.
ARTICLE 365. An adopted child shall bear the surname of the adopter.
ARTICLE 366. A natural child acknowledged by both parents shall principally use the surname of the father. If recognized by only one of the parents, a natural child shall employ the surname of the recognizing parent.
ARTICLE 367. Natural children by legal fiction shall principally employ the surname of the father.
ARTICLE 368. Illegitimate children referred to in article 287 shall bear the surname of the mother.
ARTICLE 369. Children conceived before the decree annulling a voidable marriage shall principally use the surname of the father.
ARTICLE 370. A married woman may use:
(1) Her maiden first name and surname and add her husband’s surname, or
(2) Her maiden first name and her husband’s surname, or
(3) Her husband’s full name, but prefixing a word indicating that she is his wife, such as “Mrs.”
ARTICLE 371. In case of annulment of marriage, and the wife is the guilty party, she shall resume her maiden name and surname. If she is the innocent spouse, she may resume her maiden name and surname. However, she may choose to continue employing her former husband’s surname, unless:
(1) The court decrees otherwise, or
(2) She or the former husband is married again to another person.
ARTICLE 372. When legal separation has been granted, the wife shall continue using her name and surname employed before the legal separation.
ARTICLE 373. A widow may use the deceased husband’s surname as though he were still living, in accordance with article 370.
ARTICLE 374. In case of identity of names and surnames, the younger person shall be obliged to use such additional name or surname as will avoid confusion.
ARTICLE 375. In case of identity of names and surnames between ascendants and descendants, the word “Junior” can be used only by a son. Grandsons and other direct male descendants shall either:
(1) Add a middle name or the mother’s surname, or
(2) Add the Roman numerals II, III, and so on.
ARTICLE 376. No person can change his name or surname without judicial authority.
ARTICLE 377. Usurpation of a name and surname may be the subject of an action for damages and other relief.
ARTICLE 378. The unauthorized or unlawful use of another person’s surname gives a right of action to the latter.
ARTICLE 379. The employment of pen names or stage names is permitted, provided it is done in good faith and there is no injury to third persons. Pen names and stage names cannot be usurped.
ARTICLE 380. Except as provided in the preceding article, no person shall use different names and surnames.
Provisional Measures in Case of Absence
ARTICLE 381. When a person disappears from his domicile, his whereabouts being unknown, and without leaving an agent to administer his property, the judge, at the instance of an interested party, a relative, or a friend, may appoint a person to represent him in all that may be necessary.
This same rule shall be observed when under similar circumstances the power conferred by the absentee has expired. (181a)
ARTICLE 382. The appointment referred to in the preceding article having been made, the judge shall take the necessary measures to safeguard the rights and interests of the absentee and shall specify the powers, obligations and remuneration of his representative, regulating them, according to the circumstances, by the rules concerning guardians. (182)
ARTICLE 383. In the appointment of a representative, the spouse present shall be preferred when there is no legal separation.
If the absentee left no spouse, or if the spouse present is a minor, any competent person may be appointed by the court. (183a)
Declaration of Absence
ARTICLE 384. Two years having elapsed without any news about the absentee or since the receipt of the last news, and five years in case the absentee has left a person in charge of the administration of his property, his absence may be declared. (184)
ARTICLE 385. The following may ask for the declaration of absence:
(1) The spouse present;
(2) The heirs instituted in a will, who may present an authentic copy of the same;
(3) The relatives who may succeed by the law of intestacy;
(4) Those who may have over the property of the absentee some right subordinated to the condition of his death. (185)
ARTICLE 386. The judicial declaration of absence shall not take effect until six months after its publication in a newspaper of general circulation. (186a)
Administration of the Property of the Absentee
ARTICLE 387. An administrator of the absentee’s property shall be appointed in accordance with article 383. (187a)
ARTICLE 388. The wife who is appointed as an administratrix of the husband’s property cannot alienate or encumber the husband’s property; or that of the conjugal partnership, without judicial authority. (188a)
ARTICLE 389. The administration shall cease in any of the following cases:
(1) When the absentee appears personally or by means of an agent;
(2) When the death of the absentee is proved and his testate or intestate heirs appear; cdasia
(3) When a third person appears, showing by a proper document that he has acquired the absentee’s property by purchase or other title.
In these cases the administrator shall cease in the performance of his office, and the property shall be at the disposal of those who may have a right thereto. (190)
Presumption of Death
ARTICLE 390. After an absence of seven years, it being unknown whether or not the absentee still lives, he shall be presumed dead for all purposes, except for those of succession.
The absentee shall not be presumed dead for the purpose of opening his succession till after an absence of ten years. If he disappeared after the age of seventy-five years, an absence of five years shall be sufficient in order that his succession may be opened. (n)
ARTICLE 391. The following shall be presumed dead for all purposes, including the division of the estate among the heirs: otiteo
(1) A person on board a vessel lost during a sea voyage, or an aeroplane which is missing, who has not been heard of for four years since the loss of the vessel or aeroplane;
(2) A person in the armed forces who has taken part in war, and has been missing for four years;
(3) A person who has been in danger of death under other circumstances and his existence has not been known for four years. (n)
ARTICLE 392. If the absentee appears, or without appearing his existence is proved, he shall recover his property in the condition in which it may be found, and the price of any property that may have been alienated or the property acquired therewith; but he cannot claim either fruits or rents. (194)
Effect of Absence Upon the Contingent Rights of the Absentee
ARTICLE 393. Whoever claims a right pertaining to a person whose existence is not recognized must prove that he was living at the time his existence was necessary in order to acquire said right. (195)
ARTICLE 394. Without prejudice to the provision of the preceding article, upon the opening of a succession to which an absentee is called, his share shall accrue to his coheirs, unless he has heirs, assigns, or a representative. They shall all, as the case may be, make an inventory of the property. (196a)
ARTICLE 395. The provisions of the preceding article are understood to be without prejudice to the action of petition for inheritance or other rights which are vested in the absentee, his representatives or successors in interest. These rights shall not be extinguished save by lapse of time fixed for prescription. In the record that is made in the Registry of the real estate which accrues to the coheirs, the circumstance of its being subject to the provisions of this article shall be stated. (197)
ARTICLE 396. Those who may have entered upon the inheritance shall appropriate the fruits received in good faith so long as the absentee does not appear, or while his representatives or successors in interest do not bring the proper actions. (198)
Emancipation and Age of Majority
ARTICLE 397. Emancipation takes place:
(1) By the marriage of the minor;
(2) By the attainment of majority;
(3) By the concession of the father or of the mother who exercises parental authority. (314)
ARTICLE 398. Emancipation treated of in No. 3 of the preceding article shall be effected in a public instrument which shall be recorded in the Civil Register, and unless so recorded, it shall take no effect against third persons. (316a)
ARTICLE 399. Emancipation by marriage or by voluntary concession shall terminate parental authority over the child’s person. It shall enable the minor to administer his property as though he were of age, but he cannot borrow money or alienate or encumber real property without the consent of his father or mother, or guardian. He can sue and be sued in court only with the assistance of his father, mother or guardian. (317a)
ARTICLE 400. In order that emancipation by concession of the father or of the mother may take place, it is required that the minor be eighteen years of age, and that he give his consent thereto. (318)
ARTICLE 401. Emancipation is final or irrevocable. (319a)
Age of Majority
ARTICLE 402. Majority commences upon the attainment of the age of twenty-one years.
The person who has reached majority is qualified for all acts of civil life, save the exceptions established by this Code in special cases. (320a)
ARTICLE 403. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding article, a daughter above twenty-one but below twenty-three years of age cannot leave the parental home without the consent of the father or mother in whose company she lives, except to become a wife, or when she exercises a profession or calling, or when the father or mother has contracted a subsequent marriage. (321a)
ARTICLE 404. An orphan who is minor may, at the instance of any relative or other person, obtain emancipation by concession upon an order of the Court of First Instance. (322a)
ARTICLE 405. For the concession and approval referred to in the preceding article it is necessary: ewIdne
(1) That the minor be eighteen years of age;
(2) That he consent thereto; and
(3) That the concession be deemed convenient for the minor.
The concession shall be recorded in the Civil Register. (323a)
ARTICLE 406. The provisions of article 399 are applicable to an orphan who has been emancipated according to article 404. The court will give the necessary approval with respect to the contracts mentioned in article 399. In litigations, a guardian ad litem for the minor shall be appointed by the court. (324a)
ARTICLE 407. Acts, events and judicial decrees concerning the civil status of persons shall be recorded in the civil register. (325a)
ARTICLE 408. The following shall be entered in the civil register:
(3) deaths; aoLnLe
(4) legal separations;
(5) annulments of marriage;
(6) judgments declaring marriages void from the beginning;
(9) acknowledgments of natural children;
(11) loss, or
(12) recovery of citizenship;
(13) civil interdiction;
(14) judicial determination of filiation;
(15) voluntary emancipation of a minor; and
(16) changes of name. (326a)
ARTICLE 409. In cases of legal separation, adoption, naturalization and other judicial orders mentioned in the preceding article, it shall be the duty of the clerk of the court which issued the decree to ascertain whether the same has been registered, and if this has not been done, to send a copy of said decree to the civil registry of the city or municipality where the court is functioning. (n)
ARTICLE 410. The books making up the civil register and all documents relating thereto shall be considered public documents and shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein contained. (n)
ARTICLE 411. Every civil registrar shall be civilly responsible for any unauthorized alteration made in any civil register, to any person suffering damage thereby. However, the civil registrar may exempt himself from such liability if he proves that he has taken every reasonable precaution to prevent the unlawful alteration. (n)
ARTICLE 412. No entry in a civil register shall be changed or corrected, without a judicial order. (n)
ARTICLE 413. All other matters pertaining to the registration of civil status shall be governed by special laws. (n)
Property, Ownership, and its Modifications
Classification of Property
ARTICLE 414. All things which are or may be the object of appropriation are considered either: eEEmir
(1) Immovable or real property; or
(2) Movable or personal property. (333)
ARTICLE 415. The following are immovable property:
(1) Land, buildings, roads and constructions of all kinds adhered to the soil;
(2) Trees, plants, and growing fruits, while they are attached to the land or form an integral part of an immovable;
(3) Everything attached to an immovable in a fixed manner, in such a way that it cannot be separated therefrom without breaking the material or deterioration of the object;
(4) Statues, reliefs, paintings or other objects for use or ornamentation, placed in buildings or on lands by the owner of the immovable in such a manner that it reveals the intention to attach them permanently to the tenements;
(5) Machinery, receptacles, instruments or implements intended by the owner of the tenement for an industry or works which may be carried on in a building or on a piece of land, and which tend directly to meet the needs of the said industry or works;
(6) Animal houses, pigeon-houses, beehives, fish ponds or breeding places of similar nature, in case their owner has placed them or preserves them with the intention to have them permanently attached to the land, and forming a permanent part of it; the animals in these places are included;
(7) Fertilizer actually used on a piece of land;
(8) Mines, quarries, and slag dumps, while the matter thereof forms part of the bed, and waters either running or stagnant;
(9) Docks and structures which, though floating, are intended by their nature and object to remain at a fixed place on a river, lake, or coast;
(10) Contracts for public works, and servitudes and other real rights over immovable property. (334a)
ARTICLE 416. The following things are deemed to be personal property:
(1) Those movables susceptible of appropriation which are not included in the preceding article;
(2) Real property which by any special provision of law is considered as personalty;
(3) Forces of nature which are brought under control by science; and
(4) In general, all things which can be transported from place to place without impairment of the real property to which they are fixed. (335a)
ARTICLE 417. The following are also considered as personal property:
(1) Obligations and actions which have for their object movables or demandable sums; and
(2) Shares of stock of agricultural, commercial and industrial entities, although they may have real estate. (336a)
ARTICLE 418. Movable property is either consumable or nonconsumable. To the first class belong those movables which cannot be used in a manner appropriate to their nature without their being consumed; to the second class belong all the others. (337)
Property in Relation to the Person to Whom It Belongs
ARTICLE 419. Property is either of public dominion or of private ownership. (338)
ARTICLE 420. The following things are property of public dominion:
(1) Those intended for public use, such as roads, canals, rivers, torrents, ports and bridges constructed by the State, banks, shores, roadsteads, and others of similar character;
(2) Those which belong to the State, without being for public use, and are intended for some public service or for the development of the national wealth. (339a)
ARTICLE 421. All other property of the State, which is not of the character stated in the preceding article, is patrimonial property. (340a)
ARTICLE 422. Property of public dominion, when no longer intended for public use or for public service, shall form part of the patrimonial property of the State. (341a)
ARTICLE 423. The property of provinces, cities, and municipalities is divided into property for public use and patrimonial property. (343)
ARTICLE 424. Property for public use, in the provinces, cities, and municipalities, consist of the provincial roads, city streets, municipal streets, the squares, fountains, public waters, promenades, and public works for public service paid for by said provinces, cities, or municipalities.
All other property possessed by any of them is patrimonial and shall be governed by this Code, without prejudice to the provisions of special laws. (344a)
ARTICLE 425. Property of private ownership, besides the patrimonial property of the State, provinces, cities, and municipalities, consists of all property belonging to private persons, either individually or collectively. (345a)
Provisions Common to the Three Preceding Chapters
ARTICLE 426. Whenever by provision of the law, or an individual declaration, the expression “immovable things or property,” or “movable things or property,” is used, it shall be deemed to include, respectively, the things enumerated in Chapter 1 and in Chapter 2.
Whenever the word “muebles,” or “furniture,” is used alone, it shall not be deemed to include money, credits, commercial securities, stocks and bonds, jewelry, scientific or artistic collections, books, medals, arms, clothing, horses or carriages and their accessories, grains, liquids and merchandise, or other things which do not have as their principal object the furnishing or ornamenting of a building, except where from the context of the law, or the individual declaration, the contrary clearly appears. (346a)
Ownership in General
ARTICLE 427. Ownership may be exercised over things or rights. (n)
ARTICLE 428. The owner has the right to enjoy and dispose of a thing, without other limitations than those established by law.
The owner has also a right of action against the holder and possessor of the thing in order to recover it. (348a)
ARTICLE 429. The owner or lawful possessor of a thing has the right to exclude any person from the enjoyment and disposal thereof. For this purpose, he may use such force as may be reasonably necessary to repel or prevent an actual or threatened unlawful physical invasion or usurpation of his property. (n)
ARTICLE 430. Every owner may enclose or fence his land or tenements by means of walls, ditches, live or dead hedges, or by any other means without detriment to servitudes constituted thereon. (388)
ARTICLE 431. The owner of a thing cannot make use thereof in such manner as to injure the rights of a third person. (n)
ARTICLE 432. The owner of a thing has no right to prohibit the interference of another with the same, if the interference is necessary to avert an imminent danger and the threatened damage, compared to the damage arising to the owner from the interference, is much greater. The owner may demand from the person benefited indemnity for the damage to him. (n)
ARTICLE 433. Actual possession under claim of ownership raises a disputable presumption of ownership. The true owner must resort to judicial process for the recovery of the property. (n)
ARTICLE 434. In an action to recover, the property must be identified, and the plaintiff must rely on the strength of his title and not on the weakness of the defendant’s claim. (n)
ARTICLE 435. No person shall be deprived of his property except by competent authority and for public use and always upon payment of just compensation.
Should this requirement be not first complied with, the courts shall protect and, in a proper case, restore the owner in his possession. (349a)
ARTICLE 436. When any property is condemned or seized by competent authority in the interest of health, safety or security, the owner thereof shall not be entitled to compensation, unless he can show that such condemnation or seizure is unjustified. (n)
ARTICLE 437. The owner of a parcel of land is the owner of its surface and of everything under it, and he can construct thereon any works or make any plantations and excavations which he may deem proper, without detriment to servitudes and subject to special laws and ordinances. He cannot complain of the reasonable requirements of aerial navigation. (350a)
ARTICLE 438. Hidden treasure belongs to the owner of the land, building, or other property on which it is found.
Nevertheless, when the discovery is made on the property of another, or of the State or any of its subdivisions, and by chance, one-half thereof shall be allowed to the finder. If the finder is a trespasser, he shall not be entitled to any share of the treasure.
If the things found be of interest to science or the arts, the State may acquire them at their just price, which shall be divided in conformity with the rule stated. (351a)
ARTICLE 439. By treasure is understood, for legal purposes, any hidden and unknown deposit of money, jewelry, or other precious objects, the lawful ownership of which does not appear. (352)
Right of Accession
ARTICLE 440. The ownership of property gives the right by accession to everything which is produced thereby, or which is incorporated or attached thereto, either naturally or artificially. (353)
Right of Accession with Respect to What is Produced by Property
ARTICLE 441. To the owner belongs:
(1) The natural fruits;
(2) The industrial fruits;
(3) The civil fruits. (354)
ARTICLE 442. Natural fruits are the spontaneous products of the soil, and the young and other products of animals.
Industrial fruits are those produced by lands of any kind through cultivation or labor.
Civil fruits are the rents of buildings, the price of leases of lands and other property and the amount of perpetual or life annuities or other similar income. (355a)
ARTICLE 443. He who receives the fruits has the obligation to pay the expenses made by a third person in their production, gathering, and preservation. (356)
ARTICLE 444. Only such as are manifest or born are considered as natural or industrial fruits.
With respect to animals, it is sufficient that they are in the womb of the mother, although unborn. (357)
Right of Accession with Respect to Immovable Property
ARTICLE 445. Whatever is built, planted or sown on the land of another and the improvements or repairs made thereon, belong to the owner of the land, subject to the provisions of the following articles. (358)
ARTICLE 446. All works, sowing, and planting are presumed made by the owner and at his expense, unless the contrary is proved. (359)
ARTICLE 447. The owner of the land who makes thereon, personally or through another, plantings, constructions or works with the materials of another, shall pay their value; and, if he acted in bad faith, he shall also be obliged to the reparation of damages. The owner of the materials shall have the right to remove them only in case he can do so without injury to the work constructed, or without the plantings, constructions or works being destroyed. However, if the landowner acted in bad faith, the owner of the materials may remove them in any event, with a right to be indemnified for damages. (360a)
ARTICLE 448. The owner of the land on which anything has been built, sown or planted in good faith, shall have the right to appropriate as his own the works, sowing or planting, after payment of the indemnity provided for in articles 546 and 548, or to oblige the one who built or planted to pay the price of the land, and the one who sowed, the proper rent. However, the builder or planter cannot be obliged to buy the land if its value is considerably more than that of the building or trees. In such case, he shall pay reasonable rent, if the owner of the land does not choose to appropriate the building or trees after proper indemnity. The parties shall agree upon the terms of the lease and in case of disagreement, the court shall fix the terms thereof. (361a)
ARTICLE 449. He who builds, plants or sows in bad faith on the land of another, loses what is built, planted or sown without right to indemnity. (362)
ARTICLE 450. The owner of the land on which anything has been built, planted or sown in bad faith may demand the demolition of the work, or that the planting or sowing be removed, in order to replace things in their former condition at the expense of the person who built, planted or sowed; or he may compel the builder or planter to pay the price of the land, and the sower the proper rent. (363a)
ARTICLE 451. In the cases of the two preceding articles, the landowner is entitled to damages from the builder, planter or sower. (n)
ARTICLE 452. The builder, planter or sower in bad faith is entitled to reimbursement for the necessary expenses of preservation of the land. (n)
ARTICLE 453. If there was bad faith, not only on the part of the person who built, planted or sowed on the land of another, but also on the part of the owner of such land, the rights of one and the other shall be the same as though both had acted in good faith.
It is understood that there is bad faith on the part of the landowner whenever the act was done with his knowledge and without opposition on his part. (364a)
ARTICLE 454. When the landowner acted in bad faith and the builder, planter or sower proceeded in good faith, the provisions of article 447 shall apply. (n)
ARTICLE 455. If the materials, plants or seeds belong to a third person who has not acted in bad faith, the owner of the land shall answer subsidiarily for their value and only in the event that the one who made use of them has no property with which to pay.
This provision shall not apply if the owner makes use of the right granted by article 450. If the owner of the materials, plants or seeds has been paid by the builder, planter or sower, the latter may demand from the landowner the value of the materials and labor. (365a)
ARTICLE 456. In the cases regulated in the preceding articles, good faith does not necessarily exclude negligence, which gives right to damages under article 2176. (n)
ARTICLE 457. To the owners of lands adjoining the banks of rivers belong the accretion which they gradually receive from the effects of the current of the waters. (366)
ARTICLE 458. The owners of estates adjoining ponds or lagoons do not acquire the land left dry by the natural decrease of the waters, or lose that inundated by them in extraordinary floods. (367)
ARTICLE 459. Whenever the current of a river, creek or torrent segregates from an estate on its bank a known portion of land and transfers it to another estate, the owner of the land to which the segregated portion belonged retains the ownership of it, provided that he removes the same within two years. (368a)
ARTICLE 460. Trees uprooted and carried away by the current of the waters belong to the owner of the land upon which they may be cast, if the owners do not claim them within six months. If such owners claim them, they shall pay the expenses incurred in gathering them or putting them in a safe place. (369a)
ARTICLE 461. River beds which are abandoned through the natural change in the course of the waters ipso facto belong to the owners whose lands are occupied by the new course in proportion to the area lost. However, the owners of the lands adjoining the old bed shall have the right to acquire the same by paying the value thereof, which value shall not exceed the value of the area occupied by the new bed. (370a)
ARTICLE 462. Whenever a river, changing its course by natural causes, opens a new bed through a private estate, this bed shall become of public dominion. (372a)
ARTICLE 463. Whenever the current of a river divides itself into branches, leaving a piece of land or part thereof isolated, the owner of the land retains his ownership. He also retains it if a portion of land is separated from the estate by the current. (374)
ARTICLE 464. Islands which may be formed on the seas within the jurisdiction of the Philippines, on lakes, and on navigable or floatable rivers belong to the State. (371a)
ARTICLE 465. Islands which through successive accumulation of alluvial deposits are formed in non-navigable and non-floatable rivers, belong to the owners of the margins or banks nearest to each of them, or to the owners of both margins if the island is in the middle of the river, in which case it shall be divided longitudinally in halves. If a single island thus formed be more distant from one margin than from the other, the owner of the nearer margin shall be the sole owner thereof. (373a)
Right of Accession with Respect to Movable Property
ARTICLE 466. Whenever two movable things belonging to different owners are, without bad faith, united in such a way that they form a single object, the owner of the principal thing acquires the accessory, indemnifying the former owner thereof for its value. (375)
ARTICLE 467. The principal thing, as between two things incorporated, is deemed to be that to which the other has been united as an ornament, or for its use or perfection. (376)
ARTICLE 468. If it cannot be determined by the rule given in the preceding article which of the two things incorporated is the principal one, the thing of the greater value shall be so considered, and as between two things of equal value, that of the greater volume.
In painting and sculpture, writings, printed matter, engraving and lithographs, the board, metal, stone, canvas, paper or parchment shall be deemed the accessory thing. (377)
ARTICLE 469. Whenever the things united can be separated without injury, their respective owners may demand their separation.
Nevertheless, in case the thing united for the use, embellishment or perfection of the other, is much more precious than the principal thing, the owner of the former may demand its separation, even though the thing to which it has been incorporated may suffer some injury. (378)
ARTICLE 470. Whenever the owner of the accessory thing has made the incorporation in bad faith, he shall lose the thing incorporated and shall have the obligation to indemnify the owner of the principal thing for the damages he may have suffered.
If the one who has acted in bad faith is the owner of the principal thing, the owner of the accessory thing shall have a right to choose between the former paying him its value or that the thing belonging to him be separated, even though for this purpose it be necessary to destroy the principal thing; and in both cases, furthermore, there shall be indemnity for damages.
If either one of the owners has made the incorporation with the knowledge and without the objection of the other, their respective rights shall be determined as though both acted in good faith. (379a)
ARTICLE 471. Whenever the owner of the material employed without his consent has a right to an indemnity, he may demand that this consist in the delivery of a thing equal in kind and value, and in all other respects, to that employed, or else in the price thereof, according to expert appraisal. (380)
ARTICLE 472. If by the will of their owners two things of the same or different kinds are mixed, or if the mixture occurs by chance, and in the latter case the things are not separable without injury, each owner shall acquire a right proportional to the part belonging to him, bearing in mind the value of the things mixed or confused. (381)
ARTICLE 473. If by the will of only one owner, but in good faith, two things of the same or different kinds are mixed or confused, the rights of the owners shall be determined by the provisions of the preceding article.
If the one who caused the mixture or confusion acted in bad faith, he shall lose the thing belonging to him thus mixed or confused, besides being obliged to pay indemnity for the damages caused to the owner of the other thing with which his own was mixed. (382)
ARTICLE 474. One who in good faith employs the material of another in whole or in part in order to make a thing of a different kind, shall appropriate the thing thus transformed as his own, indemnifying the owner of the material for its value.
If the material is more precious than the transformed thing or is of more value, its owner may, at his option, appropriate the new thing to himself, after first paying indemnity for the value of the work, or demand indemnity for the material.
If in the making of the thing bad faith intervened, the owner of the material shall have the right to appropriate the work to himself without paying anything to the maker, or to demand of the latter that he indemnify him for the value of the material and the damages he may have suffered. However, the owner of the material cannot appropriate the work in case the value of the latter, for artistic or scientific reasons, is considerably more than that of the material. (383a)
ARTICLE 475. In the preceding articles, sentimental value shall be duly appreciated. (n)
Quieting of Title (n)
ARTICLE 476. Whenever there is a cloud on title to real property or any interest therein, by reason of any instrument, record, claim, encumbrance or proceeding which is apparently valid or effective but is in truth and in fact invalid, ineffective, voidable, or unenforceable, and may be prejudicial to said title, an action may be brought to remove such cloud or to quiet the title.
An action may also be brought to prevent a cloud from being cast upon title to real property or any interest therein.
ARTICLE 477. The plaintiff must have legal or equitable title to, or interest in the real property which is the subject-matter of the action. He need not be in possession of said property.
ARTICLE 478. There may also be an action to quiet title or remove a cloud therefrom when the contract, instrument or other obligation has been extinguished or has terminated, or has been barred by extinctive prescription.
ARTICLE 479. The plaintiff must return to the defendant all benefits he may have received from the latter, or reimburse him for expenses that may have redounded to the plaintiff’s benefit.
ARTICLE 480. The principles of the general law on the quieting of title are hereby adopted insofar as they are not in conflict with this Code.
ARTICLE 481. The procedure for the quieting of title or the removal of a cloud therefrom shall be governed by such rules of court as the Supreme Court shall promulgate.
Ruinous Buildings and Trees in Danger of Falling
ARTICLE 482. If a building, wall, column, or any other construction is in danger of falling, the owner shall be obliged to demolish it or to execute the necessary work in order to prevent it from falling.
If the proprietor does not comply with this obligation, the administrative authorities may order the demolition of the structure at the expense of the owner, or take measures to insure public safety. (389a)
ARTICLE 483. Whenever a large tree threatens to fall in such a way as to cause damage to the land or tenement of another or to travelers over a public or private road, the owner of the tree shall be obliged to fell and remove it; and should he not do so, it shall be done at his expense by order of the administrative authorities. (390a)
ARTICLE 484. There is co-ownership whenever the ownership of an undivided thing or right belongs to different persons.
In default of contracts, or of special provisions, co-ownership shall be governed by the provisions of this Title. (392)
ARTICLE 485. The share of the co-owners, in the benefits as well as in the charges, shall be proportional to their respective interests. Any stipulation in a contract to the contrary shall be void.
The portions belonging to the co-owners in the co-ownership shall be presumed equal, unless the contrary is proved. (393a)
ARTICLE 486. Each co-owner may use the thing owned in common, provided he does so in accordance with the purpose for which it is intended and in such a way as not to injure the interest of the co-ownership or prevent the other co-owners from using it according to their rights. The purpose of the co-ownership may be changed by agreement, express or implied. (394a)
ARTICLE 487. Any one of the co-owners may bring an action in ejectment. (n)
ARTICLE 488. Each co-owner shall have a right to compel the other co-owners to contribute to the expenses of preservation of the thing or right owned in common and to the taxes. Any one of the latter may exempt himself from this obligation by renouncing so much of his undivided interest as may be equivalent to his share of the expenses and taxes. No such waiver shall be made if it is prejudicial to the co-ownership. (395a)
ARTICLE 489. Repairs for preservation may be made at the will of one of the co-owners, but he must, if practicable, first notify his co-owners of the necessity for such repairs. Expenses to improve or embellish the thing shall be decided upon by a majority as determined in article 492. (n)
ARTICLE 490. Whenever the different stories of a house belong to different owners, if the titles of ownership do not specify the terms under which they should contribute to the necessary expenses and there exists no agreement on the subject, the following rules shall be observed:
(1) The main and party walls, the roof and the other things used in common, shall be preserved at the expense of all the owners in proportion to the value of the story belonging to each;
(2) Each owner shall bear the cost of maintaining the floor of his story; the floor of the entrance, front door, common yard and sanitary works common to all, shall be maintained at the expense of all the owners pro rata;
(3) The stairs from the entrance to the first story shall be maintained at the expense of all the owners pro rata, with the exception of the owner of the ground floor; the stairs from the first to the second story shall be preserved at the expense of all, except the owner of the ground floor and the owner of the first story; and so on successively. (396)
ARTICLE 491. None of the co-owners shall, without the consent of the others, make alterations in the thing owned in common, even though benefits for all would result therefrom. However, if the withholding of the consent by one or more of the co-owners is clearly prejudicial to the common interest, the courts may afford adequate relief. (397a)
ARTICLE 492. For the administration and better enjoyment of the thing owned in common, the resolutions of the majority of the co-owners shall be binding.
There shall be no majority unless the resolution is approved by the co-owners who represent the controlling interest in the object of the co-ownership.
Should there be no majority, or should the resolution of the majority be seriously prejudicial to those interested in the property owned in common, the court, at the instance of an interested party, shall order such measures as it may deem proper, including the appointment of an administrator.
Whenever a part of the thing belongs exclusively to one of the co-owners, and the remainder is owned in common, the preceding provisions shall apply only to the part owned in common. (398)
ARTICLE 493. Each co-owner shall have the full ownership of his part and of the fruits and benefits pertaining thereto, and he may therefore alienate, assign or mortgage it, and even substitute another person in its enjoyment, except when personal rights are involved. But the effect of the alienation or the mortgage, with respect to the co-owners, shall be limited to the portion which may be allotted to him in the division upon the termination of the co-ownership. (399)
ARTICLE 494. No co-owner shall be obliged to remain in the co-ownership. Each co-owner may demand at any time the partition of the thing owned in common, insofar as his share is concerned.
Nevertheless, an agreement to keep the thing undivided for a certain period of time, not exceeding ten years, shall be valid. This term may be extended by a new agreement.
A donor or testator may prohibit partition for a period which shall not exceed twenty years.
Neither shall there be any partition when it is prohibited by law.
No prescription shall run in favor of a co-owner or co-heir against his co-owners or co-heirs so long as he expressly or impliedly recognizes the co-ownership. (400a)
ARTICLE 495. Notwithstanding the provisions of the preceding article, the co-owners cannot demand a physical division of the thing owned in common, when to do so would render it unserviceable for the use for which it is intended. But the co-ownership may be terminated in accordance with article 498. (401a)
ARTICLE 496. Partition may be made by agreement between the parties or by judicial proceedings. Partition shall be governed by the Rules of Court insofar as they are consistent with this Code. (402)
ARTICLE 497. The creditors or assignees of the co-owners may take part in the division of the thing owned in common and object to its being effected without their concurrence. But they cannot impugn any partition already executed, unless there has been fraud, or in case it was made notwithstanding a formal opposition presented to prevent it, without prejudice to the right of the debtor or assignor to maintain its validity. (403)
ARTICLE 498. Whenever the thing is essentially indivisible and the co-owners cannot agree that it be allotted to one of them who shall indemnify the others, it shall be sold and its proceeds distributed. (404)
ARTICLE 499. The partition of a thing owned in common shall not prejudice third persons, who shall retain the rights of mortgage, servitude, or any other real rights belonging to them before the division was made. Personal rights pertaining to third persons against the co-ownership shall also remain in force, notwithstanding the partition. (405)
ARTICLE 500. Upon partition, there shall be a mutual accounting for benefits received and reimbursements for expenses made. Likewise, each co-owner shall pay for damages caused by reason of his negligence or fraud. (n)
ARTICLE 501. Every co-owner shall, after partition, be liable for defects of title and quality of the portion assigned to each of the other co-owners. (n)
Some Special Properties
Ownership of Waters
ARTICLE 502. The following are of public dominion:
(1) Rivers and their natural beds;
(2) Continuous or intermittent waters of springs and brooks running in their natural beds and the beds themselves;
(3) Waters rising continuously or intermittently on lands of public dominion;
(4) Lakes and lagoons formed by Nature on public lands, and their beds;
(5) Rain waters running through ravines or sand beds, which are also of public dominion;
(6) Subterranean waters on public lands;
(7) Waters found within the zone of operation of public works, even if constructed by a contractor;
(8) Waters rising continuously or intermittently on lands belonging to private persons, to the State, to a province, or to a city or a municipality from the moment they leave such lands;
(9) The waste waters of fountains, sewers and public establishments. (407)
ARTICLE 503. The following are of private ownership:
(1) Continuous or intermittent waters rising on lands of private ownership, while running through the same;
(2) Lakes and lagoons, and their beds, formed by Nature on such lands;
(3) Subterranean waters found on the same;
(4) Rain waters falling on said lands, as long as they remain within the boundaries;
(5) The beds of flowing waters, continuous or intermittent, formed by rain water, and those of brooks, crossing lands which are not of public dominion.
In every drain or aqueduct, the water, bed, banks and floodgates shall be considered as an integral part of the land or building for which the waters are intended. The owners of lands, through which or along the boundaries of which the aqueduct passes, cannot claim ownership over it, or any right to the use of its bed or banks, unless the claim is based on titles of ownership specifying the right or ownership claimed. (408)
The Use of Public Waters
ARTICLE 504. The use of public waters is acquired:
(1) By administrative concession;
(2) By prescription for ten years.
The extent of the rights and obligations of the use shall be that established, in the first case, by the terms of the concession, and, in the second case, by the manner and form in which the waters have been used. (409a)
ARTICLE 505. Every concession for the use of waters is understood to be without prejudice to third persons. (410)
ARTICLE 506. The right to make use of public waters is extinguished by the lapse of the concession and by non-user for five years. (411a)
The Use of Waters of Private Ownership
ARTICLE 507. The owner of a piece of land on which a spring or brook rises, be it continuous or intermittent, may use its waters while they run through the same, but after the waters leave the land they shall become public, and their use shall be governed by the Special Law of Waters of August 3, 1866, and by the Irrigation Law. (412a)
ARTICLE 508. The private ownership of the beds of rain waters does not give a right to make works or constructions which may change their course to the damage of third persons, or whose destruction, by the force of floods, may cause such damage. (413)
ARTICLE 509. No one may enter private property to search waters or make use of them without permission from the owners, except as provided by the Mining Law. (414a)
ARTICLE 510. The ownership which the proprietor of a piece of land has over the waters rising thereon does not prejudice the rights which the owners of lower estates may have legally acquired to the use thereof. (415)
ARTICLE 511. Every owner of a piece of land has the right to construct within his property, reservoirs for rain waters, provided he causes no damage to the public or to third persons. (416)
ARTICLE 512. Only the owner of a piece of land, or another person with his permission, may make explorations thereon for subterranean waters, except as provided by the Mining Law.
Explorations for subterranean waters on lands of public dominion may be made only with the permission of the administrative authorities. (417a)
ARTICLE 513. Waters artificially brought forth in accordance with the Special Law of Waters of August 3, 1866, belong to the person who brought them up. (418)
ARTICLE 514. When the owner of waters artificially brought to the surface abandons them to their natural course, they shall become of public dominion. (419)
ARTICLE 515. The owner of a piece of land on which there are defensive works to check waters, or on which, due to a change of their course, it may be necessary to reconstruct such works, shall be obliged, at his election, either to make the necessary repairs or construction himself, or to permit them to be done, without damage to him, by the owners of the lands which suffer or are clearly exposed to suffer injury. (420)
ARTICLE 516. The provisions of the preceding article are applicable to the case in which it may be necessary to clear a piece of land of matter, whose accumulation or fall may obstruct the course of the waters, to the damage or peril of third persons. (421)
ARTICLE 517. All the owners who participate in the benefits arising from the works referred to in the two preceding articles, shall be obliged to contribute to the expenses of construction in proportion to their respective interests. Those who by their fault may have caused the damage shall be liable for the expenses. (422)
ARTICLE 518. All matters not expressly determined by the provisions of this Chapter shall be governed by the Special Law of Waters of August 3, 1866, and by the Irrigation Law. (425a)