Labor Code Law of the Philippines (4)
Chapter IV CONTRIBUTIONS
Art. 183. Employers’ contributions.
a. Under such regulations as the System may prescribe, beginning as of the last day of the month when an employee’s compulsory coverage takes effect and every month thereafter during his employment, his employer shall prepare to remit to the System a contribution equivalent to one percent of his monthly salary credit.
b. The rate of contribution shall be reviewed periodically and subject to the limitations herein provided, may be revised as the experience in risk, cost of administration and actual or anticipated as well as unexpected losses, may require.
c. Contributions under this Title shall be paid in their entirety by the employer and any contract or device for the deductions of any portion thereof from the wages or salaries of the employees shall be null and void. d. When a covered employee dies, becomes disabled or is separated from employment, his employer’s obligation to pay the monthly contribution arising from that employment shall cease at the end of the month of contingency and during such months that he is not receiving wages or salary.
Art. 184. Government guarantee.
The Republic of the Philippines guarantees the benefits prescribed under this Title, and accepts general responsibility for the solvency of the State Insurance Fund. In case of any deficiency, the same shall be covered by supplemental appropriations from the national government.
Chapter V MEDICAL BENEFITS
Art. 185. Medical services. Immediately after an employee contracts sickness or sustains an injury, he shall be provided by the System during the subsequent period of his disability with such medical services and appliances as the nature of his sickness or injury and progress of his recovery may require, subject to the expense limitation prescribed by the Commission.
Art. 186. Liability. The System shall have the authority to choose or order a change of physician, hospital or rehabilitation facility for the employee, and shall not be liable for compensation for any aggravation of the employee’s injury or sickness resulting from unauthorized changes by the employee of medical services, appliances, supplies, hospitals, rehabilitation facilities or physicians.
Art. 187. Attending physician. Any physician attending an injured or sick employee shall comply with all the regulations of the System and submit reports in prescribed forms at such time as may be required concerning his condition or treatment. All medical information relevant to the particular injury or sickness shall, on demand, be made available to the employee or the System. No information developed in connection with treatment or examination for which compensation is sought shall be considered as privileged communication.
Art. 188. Refusal of examination or treatment. If the employee unreasonably refuses to submit to medical examination or treatment, the System shall stop the payment of further compensation during such time as such refusal continues. What constitutes an unreasonable refusal shall be determined by the System which may, on its own initiative, determine the necessity, character and sufficiency of any medical services furnished or to be furnished.
Art. 189. Fees and other charges. All fees and other charges for hospital services, medical care and appliances, including professional fees, shall not be higher than those prevailing in wards of hospitals for similar services to injured or sick persons in general and shall be subject to the regulations of the Commission. Professional fees shall only be appreciably higher than those prescribed under Republic Act Numbered sixty-one hundred eleven, as amended, otherwise known as the Philippine Medical Care Act of 1969.
Art. 190. Rehabilitation services.
a. The System shall, as soon as practicable, establish a continuing program, for the rehabilitation of injured and handicapped employees who shall be entitled to rehabilitation services, which shall consist of medical, surgical or hospital treatment, including appliances if they have been handicapped by the injury, to help them become physically independent.
b. As soon as practicable, the System shall establish centers equipped and staffed to provide a balanced program of remedial treatment, vocational assessment and preparation designed to meet the individual needs of each handicapped employee to restore him to suitable employment, including assistance as may be within its resources, to help each rehabilitee to develop his mental, vocational or social potential.
Chapter VI DISABILITY BENEFITS
Art. 191. Temporary total disability.
a. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, any employee under this Title who sustains an injury or contracts sickness resulting in temporary total disability shall, for each day of such a disability or fraction thereof, be paid by the System an income benefit equivalent to ninety percent of his average daily salary credit, subject to the following conditions: the daily income benefit shall not be less than Ten Pesos nor more than Ninety Pesos, nor paid for a continuous period longer than one hundred twenty days, except as otherwise provided for in the Rules, and the System shall be notified of the injury or sickness. (As amended by Section 2, Executive Order No. 179)
b. The payment of such income benefit shall be in accordance with the regulations of the Commission. (As amended by Section 19, Presidential Decree No. 850)
Art. 192. Permanent total disability.
a. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, any employee under this Title who contracts sickness or sustains an injury resulting in his permanent total disability shall, for each month until his death, be paid by the System during such a disability, an amount equivalent to the monthly income benefit, plus ten percent thereof for each dependent child, but not exceeding five, beginning with the youngest and without substitution: Provided, That the monthly income benefit shall be the new amount of the monthly benefit for all covered pensioners, effective upon approval of this Decree.
b. The monthly income benefit shall be guaranteed for five years, and shall be suspended if the employee is gainfully employed, or recovers from his permanent total disability, or fails to present himself for examination at least once a year upon notice by the System, except as otherwise provided for in other laws, decrees, orders or Letters of Instructions. (As amended by Section 5, Presidential Decree No. 1641)
c. The following disabilities shall be deemed total and permanent:
1. Temporary total disability lasting continuously for more than one hundred twenty days, except as otherwise provided for in the Rules;
2. Complete loss of sight of both eyes;
3. Loss of two limbs at or above the ankle or wrist;
4. Permanent complete paralysis of two limbs;
5. Brain injury resulting in incurable imbecility or insanity; and 6. Such cases as determined by the Medical Director of the System and approved by the Commission. d. The number of months of paid coverage shall be defined and approximated by a formula to be approved by the Commission.
Art. 193. Permanent partial disability.
a. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, any employee under this Title who contracts sickness or sustains an injury resulting in permanent partial disability shall, for each month not exceeding the period designated herein, be paid by the System during such a disability an income benefit for permanent total disability.
b. The benefit shall be paid for not more than the period designated in the following schedules: Complete and permanent No. of Months loss of the use of One thumb - 10 One index finger - 8 One middle finger - 6 One ring finger - 5 One little finger - 3 One big toe - 6 One toe - 3 One arm - 50 One hand - 39 One foot - 31 One leg - 46 One ear - 10 Both ears - 20 Hearing of one ear - 10 Hearing of both ears - 50 Sight of one eye - 25
c. A loss of a wrist shall be considered as a loss of the hand, and a loss of an elbow shall be considered as a loss of the arm. A loss of an ankle shall be considered as loss of a foot, and a loss of a knee shall be considered as a loss of the leg. A loss of more than one joint shall be considered as a loss of one-half of the whole finger or toe: Provided, That such a loss shall be either the functional loss of the use or physical loss of the member. (As amended by Section 7, Presidential Decree No. 1368)
d. In case of permanent partial disability less than the total loss of the member specified in the preceding paragraph, the same monthly income benefit shall be paid for a portion of the period established for the total loss of the member in accordance with the proportion that the partial loss bears to the total loss. If the result is a decimal fraction, the same shall be rounded off to the next higher integer.
e. In cases of simultaneous loss of more than one member or a part thereof as specified in this Article, the same monthly income benefit shall be paid for a period equivalent to the sum of the periods established for the loss of the member or the part thereof. If the result is a decimal fraction, the same shall be rounded off to the next higher integer.
f. In cases of injuries or illnesses resulting in a permanent partial disability not listed in the preceding schedule, the benefit shall be an income benefit equivalent to the percentage of the permanent loss of the capacity to work. (As added by Section 7, Presidential Decree No. 1368)
g. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, the income benefit payable in case of permanent partial disability may be paid in monthly pension or in lump sum if the period covered does not exceed one year. (As added by Section 7, Presidential Decree No. 1368)
Chapter VII DEATH BENEFITS
Art. 194. Death.
a. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, the System shall pay to the primary beneficiaries upon the death of the covered employee under this Title, an amount equivalent to his monthly income benefit, plus ten percent thereof for each dependent child, but not exceeding five, beginning with the youngest and without substitution, except as provided for in paragraph (j) of Article 167 hereof: Provided, however, That the monthly income benefit shall be guaranteed for five years: Provided, further, That if he has no primary beneficiary, the System shall pay to his secondary beneficiaries the monthly income benefit but not to exceed sixty months: Provided, finally, That the minimum death benefit shall not be less than fifteen thousand pesos. (As amended by Section 4, Presidential Decree No. 1921)
b. Under such regulations as the Commission may approve, the System shall pay to the primary beneficiaries upon the death of a covered employee who is under permanent total disability under this Title, eighty percent of the monthly income benefit and his dependents to the dependents’ pension: Provided, That the marriage must have been validly subsisting at the time of disability: Provided, further, That if he has no primary beneficiary, the System shall pay to his secondary beneficiaries the monthly pension excluding the dependents’ pension, of the remaining balance of the five-year guaranteed period: Provided, finally, That the minimum death benefit shall not be less than fifteen thousand pesos. (As amended by Section 4, Presidential Decree No. 1921)
c. The monthly income benefit provided herein shall be the new amount of the monthly income benefit for the surviving beneficiaries upon the approval of this decree. (As amended by Section 8, Presidential Decree No. 1368)
d. Funeral benefit. - A funeral benefit of Three thousand pesos (P3,000.00) shall be paid upon the death of a covered employee or permanently totally disabled pensioner. (As amended by Section 3, Executive Order No. 179)
Chapter VIII PROVISIONS COMMON TO INCOME BENEFITS
Art. 195. Relationship and dependency. All questions of relationship and dependency shall be determined as of the time of death.
Art. 196. Delinquent contributions.
a. An employer who is delinquent in his contributions shall be liable to the System for the benefits which may have been paid by the System to his employees or their dependents, and any benefit and expenses to which such employer is liable shall constitute a lien on all his property, real or personal, which is hereby declared to be preferred to any credit, except taxes. The payment by the employer of the lump sum equivalent of such liability shall absolve him from the payment of the delinquent contribution and penalty thereon with respect to the employee concerned.
b. Failure or refusal of the employer to pay or remit the contribution herein prescribed shall not prejudice the right of the employee or his dependents to the benefits under this Title. If the sickness, injury, disability or death occurs before the System receives any report of the name of his employee, the employer shall be liable to the System for the lump sum equivalent to the benefits to which such employee or his dependents may be entitled.
Art. 197. Second injuries. If any employee under permanent partial disability suffers another injury which results in a compensable disability greater than the previous injury, the State Insurance Fund shall be liable for the income benefit of the new disability: Provided, That if the new disability is related to the previous disability, the System shall be liable only for the difference in income benefits.
Art. 198. Assignment of benefits. No claim for compensation under this Title is transferable or liable to tax, attachment, garnishment, levy or seizure by or under any legal process whatsoever, either before or after receipt by the person or persons entitled thereto, except to pay any debt of the employee to the System.
Art. 199. Earned benefits. Income benefits shall, with respect to any period of disability, be payable in accordance with this Title to an employee who is entitled to receive wages, salaries or allowances for holidays, vacation or sick leaves and any other award of benefit under a collective bargaining or other agreement.
Art. 200. Safety devices. In case the employee’s injury or death was due to the failure of the employer to comply with any law or to install and maintain safety devices or to take other precautions for the prevention of injury, said employer shall pay the State Insurance Fund a penalty of twenty-five percent (25%) of the lump sum equivalent of the income benefit payable by the System to the employee. All employers, specially those who should have been paying a rate of contribution higher than required of them under this Title, are enjoined to undertake and strengthen measures for the occupational health and safety of their employees.
Art. 201. Prescriptive period. No claim for compensation shall be given due course unless said claim is filed with the System within three (3) years from the time the cause of action accrued. (As amended by Section 5, Presidential Decree No. 1921)
Art. 202. Erroneous payment.
a. If the System in good faith pays income benefit to a dependent who is inferior in right to another dependent or with whom another dependent is entitled to share, such payments shall discharge the System from liability, unless and until such other dependent notifies the System of his claim prior to the payments.
b. In case of doubt as to the respective rights of rival claimants, the System is hereby empowered to determine as to whom payments should be made in accordance with such regulations as the Commission may approve. If the money is payable to a minor or incompetent, payment shall be made by the System to such person or persons as it may consider to be best qualified to take care and dispose of the minor’s or incompetent’s property for his benefit.
Art. 203. Prohibition. No agent, attorney or other person pursuing or in charge of the preparation or filing of any claim for benefit under this Title shall demand or charge for his services any fee, and any stipulation to the contrary shall be null and void. The retention or deduction of any amount from any benefit granted under this Title for the payment of fees for such services is prohibited. Violation of any provision of this Article shall be punished by a fine of not less than five hundred pesos nor more than five thousand pesos, or imprisonment for not less than six months nor more than one year, or both, at the discretion of the court.
Art. 204. Exemption from levy, tax, etc. All laws to the contrary notwithstanding, the State Insurance Fund and all its assets shall be exempt from any tax, fee, charge, levy, or customs or import duty and no law hereafter enacted shall apply to the State Insurance Fund unless it is provided therein that the same is applicable by expressly stating its name.
Chapter IX RECORDS, REPORTS AND PENAL PROVISIONS
Art. 205. Record of death or disability.
a. All employers shall keep a logbook to record chronologically the sickness, injury or death of their employees, setting forth therein their names, dates and places of the contingency, nature of the contingency and absences. Entries in the logbook shall be made within five days from notice or knowledge of the occurrence of the contingency. Within five days after entry in the logbook, the employer shall report to the System only those contingencies he deems to be work-connected.
b. All entries in the employer’s logbook shall be made by the employer or any of his authorized official after verification of the contingencies or the employees’ absences for a period of a day or more. Upon request by the System, the employer shall furnish the necessary certificate regarding information about any contingency appearing in the logbook, citing the entry number, page number and date. Such logbook shall be made available for inspection to the duly authorized representative of the System.
c. Should any employer fail to record in the logbook an actual sickness, injury or death of any of his employees within the period prescribed herein, give false information or withhold material information already in his possession, he shall be held liable for fifty percent of the lump sum equivalent of the income benefit to which the employee may be found to be entitled, the payment of which shall accrue to the State Insurance Fund.
d. In case of payment of benefits for any claim which is later determined to be fraudulent and the employer is found to be a party to the fraud, such employer shall reimburse the System the full amount of the compensation paid.
Art. 206. Notice of sickness, injury or death. Notice of sickness, injury or death shall be given to the employer by the employee or by his dependents or anybody on his behalf within five days from the occurrence of the contingency. No notice to the employer shall be required if the contingency is known to the employer or his agents or representatives.
Art. 207. Penal provisions.
a. The penal provisions of Republic Act Numbered Eleven Hundred Sixty-One, as amended, and Commonwealth Act Numbered One Hundred Eighty-Six, as amended, with regard to the funds as are thereunder being paid to, collected or disbursed by the System, shall be applicable to the collection, administration and disbursement of the Funds under this Title. The penal provisions on coverage shall also be applicable.
b. Any person who, for the purpose of securing entitlement to any benefit or payment under this Title, or the issuance of any certificate or document for any purpose connected with this Title, whether for him or for some other person, commits fraud, collusion, falsification, misrepresentation of facts or any other kind of anomaly, shall be punished with a fine of not less than five hundred pesos nor more than five thousand pesos and an imprisonment for not less than six months nor more than one year, at the discretion of the court.
c. If the act penalized by this Article is committed by any person who has been or is employed by the Commission or System, or a recidivist, the imprisonment shall not be less than one year; if committed by a lawyer, physician or other professional, he shall, in addition to the penalty prescribed herein, be disqualified from the practice of his profession; and if committed by any official, employee or personnel of the Commission, System or any government agency, he shall, in addition to the penalty prescribed herein, be dismissed with prejudice to re-employment in the government service.
Art. 208. Applicability. This Title shall apply only to injury, sickness, disability or death occurring on or after January 1, 1975. Art. 208-A. Repeal. All existing laws, Presidential Decrees and Letters of Instructions which are inconsistent with or contrary to this Decree, are hereby repealed: Provided, That in the case of the GSIS, conditions for entitlement to benefits shall be governed by the Labor Code, as amended: Provided, however, That the formulas for computation of benefits, as well as the contribution base, shall be those provided under Commonwealth Act Numbered One Hundred Eighty-Six, as amended by Presidential Decree No. 1146, plus twenty percent thereof. (As added by Section 9, Presidential Decree No. 1368 [May 1, 1978] and subsequently amended by Section 7, Presidential Decree No. 1641)
Title III MEDICARE
Art. 209. Medical care. The Philippine Medical Care Plan shall be implemented as provided under Republic Act Numbered Sixty-One Hundred Eleven, as amended.
Title IV ADULT EDUCATION
Art. 210. Adult education. Every employer shall render assistance in the establishment and operation of adult education programs for their workers and employees as prescribed by regulations jointly approved by the Department of Labor and Employment and the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.
BOOK FIVE LABOR RELATIONS
Title I POLICY AND DEFINITIONS
Chapter I POLICY
Art. 211. Declaration of Policy.
A. It is the policy of the State:
a.To promote and emphasize the primacy of free collective bargaining and negotiations, including voluntary arbitration, mediation and conciliation, as modes of settling labor or industrial disputes;
b. To promote free trade unionism as an instrument for the enhancement of democracy and the promotion of social justice and development;
c. To foster the free and voluntary organization of a strong and united labor movement;
d. To promote the enlightenment of workers concerning their rights and obligations as union members and as employees;
e. To provide an adequate administrative machinery for the expeditious settlement of labor or industrial disputes;
f.To ensure a stable but dynamic and just industrial peace; and
g. To ensure the participation of workers in decision and policy-making processes affecting their rights, duties and welfare.
B. To encourage a truly democratic method of regulating the relations between the employers and employees by means of agreements freely entered into through collective bargaining, no court or administrative agency or official shall have the power to set or fix wages, rates of pay, hours of work or other terms and conditions of employment, except as otherwise provided under this Code. (As amended by Section 3, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989)
Chapter II DEFINITIONS
Art. 212. Definitions.
a. "Commission" means the National Labor Relations Commission or any of its divisions, as the case may be, as provided under this Code.
b. "Bureau" means the Bureau of Labor Relations and/or the Labor Relations Divisions in the regional offices established under Presidential Decree No. 1, in the Department of Labor.
c. "Board" means the National Conciliation and Mediation Board established under Executive Order No. 126.
d. "Council" means the Tripartite Voluntary Arbitration Advisory Council established under Executive Order No. 126, as amended.
e. "Employer" includes any person acting in the interest of an employer, directly or indirectly. The term shall not include any labor organization or any of its officers or agents except when acting as employer.
f."Employee" includes any person in the employ of an employer. The term shall not be limited to the employees of a particular employer, unless the Code so explicitly states. It shall include any individual whose work has ceased as a result of or in connection with any current labor dispute or because of any unfair labor practice if he has not obtained any other substantially equivalent and regular employment.
g. "Labor organization" means any union or association of employees which exists in whole or in part for the purpose of collective bargaining or of dealing with employers concerning terms and conditions of employment.
h. "Legitimate labor organization" means any labor organization duly registered with the Department of Labor and Employment, and includes any branch or local thereof.
i. "Company union" means any labor organization whose formation, function or administration has been assisted by any act defined as unfair labor practice by this Code.
j. "Bargaining representative" means a legitimate labor organization whether or not employed by the employer.
k. "Unfair labor practice" means any unfair labor practice as expressly defined by the Code.
l. "Labor dispute" includes any controversy or matter concerning terms and conditions of employment or the association or representation of persons in negotiating, fixing, maintaining, changing or arranging the terms and conditions of employment, regardless of whether the disputants stand in the proximate relation of employer and employee.
m. "Managerial employee" is one who is vested with the powers or prerogatives to lay down and execute management policies and/or to hire, transfer, suspend, lay-off, recall, discharge, assign or discipline employees. Supervisory employees are those who, in the interest of the employer, effectively recommend such managerial actions if the exercise of such authority is not merely routinary or clerical in nature but requires the use of independent judgment. All employees not falling within any of the above definitions are considered rank-and-file employees for purposes of this Book.
n. "Voluntary Arbitrator" means any person accredited by the Board as such or any person named or designated in the Collective Bargaining Agreement by the parties to act as their Voluntary Arbitrator, or one chosen with or without the assistance of the National Conciliation and Mediation Board, pursuant to a selection procedure agreed upon in the Collective Bargaining Agreement, or any official that may be authorized by the Secretary of Labor and Employment to act as Voluntary Arbitrator upon the written request and agreement of the parties to a labor dispute.
o. "Strike" means any temporary stoppage of work by the concerted action of employees as a result of an industrial or labor dispute.
p. "Lockout" means any temporary refusal of an employer to furnish work as a result of an industrial or labor dispute.
q. "Internal union dispute" includes all disputes or grievances arising from any violation of or disagreement over any provision of the constitution and by laws of a union, including any violation of the rights and conditions of union membership provided for in this Code.
r."Strike-breaker" means any person who obstructs, impedes, or interferes with by force, violence, coercion, threats, or intimidation any peaceful picketing affecting wages, hours or conditions of work or in the exercise of the right of self-organization or collective bargaining.
s. "Strike area" means the establishment, warehouses, depots, plants or offices, including the sites or premises used as runaway shops, of the employer struck against, as well as the immediate vicinity actually used by picketing strikers in moving to and fro before all points of entrance to and exit from said establishment. (As amended by Section 4, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989)