Labor Code Law of the Philippines (7)
Art. 269. Prohibition against aliens; exceptions. All aliens, natural or juridical, as well as foreign organizations are strictly prohibited from engaging directly or indirectly in all forms of trade union activities without prejudice to normal contacts between Philippine labor unions and recognized international labor centers: Provided, however, That aliens working in the country with valid permits issued by the Department of Labor and Employment, may exercise the right to self-organization and join or assist labor organizations of their own choosing for purposes of collective bargaining: Provided, further, That said aliens are nationals of a country which grants the same or similar rights to Filipino workers. (As amended by Section 29, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) Art. 270. Regulation of foreign assistance. a. No foreign individual, organization or entity may give any donations, grants or other forms of assistance, in cash or in kind, directly or indirectly, to any labor organization, group of workers or any auxiliary thereof, such as cooperatives, credit unions and institutions engaged in research, education or communication, in relation to trade union activities, without prior permission by the Secretary of Labor. "Trade union activities" shall mean: 1. organization, formation and administration of labor organization; 2. negotiation and administration of collective bargaining agreements; 3. all forms of concerted union action; 4. organizing, managing, or assisting union conventions, meetings, rallies, referenda, teach-ins, seminars, conferences and institutes; 5. any form of participation or involvement in representation proceedings, representation elections, consent elections, union elections; and 6. other activities or actions analogous to the foregoing. b. This prohibition shall equally apply to foreign donations, grants or other forms of assistance, in cash or in kind, given directly or indirectly to any employer or employer’s organization to support any activity or activities affecting trade unions. c. The Secretary of Labor shall promulgate rules and regulations to regulate and control the giving and receiving of such donations, grants, or other forms of assistance, including the mandatory reporting of the amounts of the donations or grants, the specific recipients thereof, the projects or activities proposed to be supported, and their duration. Art. 271. Applicability to farm tenants and rural workers. The provisions of this Title pertaining to foreign organizations and activities shall be deemed applicable likewise to all organizations of farm tenants, rural workers, and the like: Provided, That in appropriate cases, the Secretary of Agrarian Reform shall exercise the powers and responsibilities vested by this Title in the Secretary of Labor.
PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION
Art. 272. Penalties. a. Any person violating any of the provisions of Article 264 of this Code shall be punished by a fine of not less than one thousand pesos (P1,000.00) nor more than ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) and/or imprisonment for not less than three months nor more than three (3) years, or both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court. Prosecution under this provision shall preclude prosecution for the same act under the Revised Penal Code, and vice versa. b. Upon the recommendation of the Minister of Labor and Employment and the Minister of National Defense, foreigners who violate the provisions of this Title shall be subject to immediate and summary deportation by the Commission on Immigration and Deportation and shall be permanently barred from reentering the country without the special permission of the President of the Philippines. (As amended by Section 16, Batas Pambansa Bilang 130 and Section 7, Batas Pambansa Bilang 227)
Art. 273. Study of labor-management relations. The Secretary of Labor shall have the power and it shall be his duty to inquire into: a. the existing relations between employers and employees in the Philippines; b. the growth of associations of employees and the effect of such associations upon employer-employee relations; c. the extent and results of the methods of collective bargaining in the determination of terms and conditions of employment; d. the methods which have been tried by employers and associations of employees for maintaining mutually satisfactory relations; e. desirable industrial practices which have been developed through collective bargaining and other voluntary arrangements; f.the possible ways of increasing the usefulness and efficiency of collective bargaining for settling differences; g. the possibilities for the adoption of practical and effective methods of labormanagement cooperation; h. any other aspects of employer-employee relations concerning the promotion of harmony and understanding between the parties; and i.the relevance of labor laws and labor relations to national development. The Secretary of Labor shall also inquire into the causes of industrial unrest and take all the necessary steps within his power as may be prescribed by law to alleviate the same, and shall from time to time recommend the enactment of such remedial legislation as in his judgment may be desirable for the maintenance and promotion of industrial peace. Art. 274. Visitorial power. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representative is hereby empowered to inquire into the financial activities of legitimate labor organizations upon the filing of a complaint under oath and duly supported by the written consent of at least twenty percent (20%) of the total membership of the labor organization concerned and to examine their books of accounts and other records to determine compliance or non-compliance with the law and to prosecute any violations of the law and the union constitution and by-laws: Provided, That such inquiry or examination shall not be conducted during the sixty (60)-day freedom period nor within the thirty (30) days immediately preceding the date of election of union officials. (As amended by Section 31, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) Art. 275. Tripartism and tripartite conferences. a. Tripartism in labor relations is hereby declared a State policy. Towards this end, workers and employers shall, as far as practicable, be represented in decision and policy-making bodies of the government. b. The Secretary of Labor and Employment or his duly authorized representatives may, from time to time, call a national, regional, or industrial tripartite conference of representatives of government, workers and employers for the consideration and adoption of voluntary codes of principles designed to promote industrial peace based on social justice or to align labor movement relations with established priorities in economic and social development. In calling such conference, the Secretary of Labor and Employment may consult with accredited representatives of workers and employers. (As amended by Section 32, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) Art. 276. Government employees. The terms and conditions of employment of all government employees, including employees of government-owned and controlled corporations, shall be governed by the Civil Service Law, rules and regulations. Their salaries shall be standardized by the National Assembly as provided for in the New Constitution. However, there shall be no reduction of existing wages, benefits and other terms and conditions of employment being enjoyed by them at the time of the adoption of this Code. Art. 277. Miscellaneous provisions. a. All unions are authorized to collect reasonable membership fees, union dues, assessments and fines and other contributions for labor education and research, mutual death and hospitalization benefits, welfare fund, strike fund and credit and cooperative undertakings. (As amended by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) b. Subject to the constitutional right of workers to security of tenure and their right to be protected against dismissal except for a just and authorized cause and without prejudice to the requirement of notice under Article 283 of this Code, the employer shall furnish the worker whose employment is sought to be terminated a written notice containing a statement of the causes for termination and shall afford the latter ample opportunity to be heard and to defend himself with the assistance of his representative if he so desires in accordance with company rules and regulations promulgated pursuant to guidelines set by the Department of Labor and Employment. Any decision taken by the employer shall be without prejudice to the right of the worker to contest the validity or legality of his dismissal by filing a complaint with the regional branch of the National Labor Relations Commission. The burden of proving that the termination was for a valid or authorized cause shall rest on the employer. The Secretary of the Department of Labor and Employment may suspend the effects of the termination pending resolution of the dispute in the event of a prima facie finding by the appropriate official of the Department of Labor and Employment before whom such dispute is pending that the termination may cause a serious labor dispute or is in implementation of a mass lay-off. (As amended by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) c. Any employee, whether employed for a definite period or not, shall, beginning on his first day of service, be considered as an employee for purposes of membership in any labor union. (As amended by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715) d. No docket fee shall be assessed in labor standards disputes. In all other disputes, docket fees may be assessed against the filing party, provided that in bargaining deadlock, such fees shall be shared equally by the negotiating parties. e. The Minister of Labor and Employment and the Minister of the Budget shall cause to be created or reclassified in accordance with law such positions as may be necessary to carry out the objectives of this Code and cause the upgrading of the salaries of the personnel involved in the Labor Relations System of the Ministry. Funds needed for this purpose shall be provided out of the Special Activities Fund appropriated by Batas Pambansa Blg. 80 and from annual appropriations thereafter. (Incorporated by Batas Pambansa Bilang 130, August 21, 1981) f.A special Voluntary Arbitration Fund is hereby established in the Board to subsidize the cost of voluntary arbitration in cases involving the interpretation and implementation of the Collective Bargaining Agreement, including the Arbitrator’s fees, and for such other related purposes to promote and develop voluntary arbitration. The Board shall administer the Special Voluntary Arbitration Fund in accordance with the guidelines it may adopt upon the recommendation of the Council, which guidelines shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary of Labor and Employment. Continuing funds needed for this purpose in the initial yearly amount of fifteen million pesos (P15,000,000.00) shall be provided in the 1989 annual general appropriations acts. The amount of subsidy in appropriate cases shall be determined by the Board in accordance with established guidelines issued by it upon the recommendation of the Council. The Fund shall also be utilized for the operation of the Council, the training and education of Voluntary Arbitrators, and the Voluntary Arbitration Program. (As amended by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) g. The Ministry shall help promote and gradually develop, with the agreement of labor organizations and employers, labor-management cooperation programs at appropriate levels of the enterprise based on the shared responsibility and mutual respect in order to ensure industrial peace and improvement in productivity, working conditions and the quality of working life. (Incorporated by Batas Pambansa Bilang 130, August 21, 1981) h. In establishments where no legitimate labor organization exists, labormanagement committees may be formed voluntarily by workers and employers for the purpose of promoting industrial peace. The Department of Labor and Employment shall endeavor to enlighten and educate the workers and employers on their rights and responsibilities through labor education with emphasis on the policy thrusts of this Code. (As amended by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) i.To ensure speedy labor justice, the periods provided in this Code within which decisions or resolutions of labor relations cases or matters should be rendered shall be mandatory. For this purpose, a case or matter shall be deemed submitted for decision or resolution upon the filing of the last pleading or memorandum required by the rules of the Commission or by the Commission itself, or the Labor Arbiter, or the Director of the Bureau of Labor Relations or Med-Arbiter, or the Regional Director. Upon expiration of the corresponding period, a certification stating why a decision or resolution has not been rendered within the said period shall be issued forthwith by the Chairman of the Commission, the Executive Labor Arbiter, or the Director of the Bureau of Labor Relations or Med-Arbiter, or the Regional Director, as the case may be, and a copy thereof served upon the parties. Despite the expiration of the applicable mandatory period, the aforesaid officials shall, without prejudice to any liability which may have been incurred as a consequence thereof, see to it that the case or matter shall be decided or resolved without any further delay. (Incorporated by Section 33, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989)
TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Art. 278. Coverage. The provisions of this Title shall apply to all establishments or undertakings, whether for profit or not. Art. 279. Security of tenure. In cases of regular employment, the employer shall not terminate the services of an employee except for a just cause or when authorized by this Title. An employee who is unjustly dismissed from work shall be entitled to reinstatement without loss of seniority rights and other privileges and to his full backwages, inclusive of allowances, and to his other benefits or their monetary equivalent computed from the time his compensation was withheld from him up to the time of his actual reinstatement. (As amended by Section 34, Republic Act No. 6715, March 21, 1989) Art. 280. Regular and casual employment. The provisions of written agreement to the contrary notwithstanding and regardless of the oral agreement of the parties, an employment shall be deemed to be regular where the employee has been engaged to perform activities which are usually necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer, except where the employment has been fixed for a specific project or undertaking the completion or termination of which has been determined at the time of the engagement of the employee or where the work or service to be performed is seasonal in nature and the employment is for the duration of the season. An employment shall be deemed to be casual if it is not covered by the preceding paragraph: Provided, That any employee who has rendered at least one year of service, whether such service is continuous or broken, shall be considered a regular employee with respect to the activity in which he is employed and his employment shall continue while such activity exists. Art. 281. Probationary employment. Probationary employment shall not exceed six (6) months from the date the employee started working, unless it is covered by an apprenticeship agreement stipulating a longer period. The services of an employee who has been engaged on a probationary basis may be terminated for a just cause or when he fails to qualify as a regular employee in accordance with reasonable standards made known by the employer to the employee at the time of his engagement. An employee who is allowed to work after a probationary period shall be considered a regular employee. Art. 282. Termination by employer. An employer may terminate an employment for any of the following causes: a. Serious misconduct or willful disobedience by the employee of the lawful orders of his employer or representative in connection with his work; b. Gross and habitual neglect by the employee of his duties; c. Fraud or willful breach by the employee of the trust reposed in him by his employer or duly authorized representative; d. Commission of a crime or offense by the employee against the person of his employer or any immediate member of his family or his duly authorized representatives; and e. Other causes analogous to the foregoing. Art. 283. Closure of establishment and reduction of personnel. The employer may also terminate the employment of any employee due to the installation of laborsaving devices, redundancy, retrenchment to prevent losses or the closing or cessation of operation of the establishment or undertaking unless the closing is for the purpose of circumventing the provisions of this Title, by serving a written notice on the workers and the Ministry of Labor and Employment at least one (1) month before the intended date thereof. In case of termination due to the installation of labor-saving devices or redundancy, the worker affected thereby shall be entitled to a separation pay equivalent to at least his one (1) month pay or to at least one (1) month pay for every year of service, whichever is higher. In case of retrenchment to prevent losses and in cases of closures or cessation of operations of establishment or undertaking not due to serious business losses or financial reverses, the separation pay shall be equivalent to one (1) month pay or at least one-half (1/2) month pay for every year of service, whichever is higher. A fraction of at least six (6) months shall be considered one (1) whole year. Art. 284. Disease as ground for termination. An employer may terminate the services of an employee who has been found to be suffering from any disease and whose continued employment is prohibited by law or is prejudicial to his health as well as to the health of his co-employees: Provided, That he is paid separation pay equivalent to at least one (1) month salary or to one-half (1/2) month salary for every year of service, whichever is greater, a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one (1) whole year. Art. 285. Termination by employee. a. An employee may terminate without just cause the employee-employer relationship by serving a written notice on the employer at least one (1) month in advance. The employer upon whom no such notice was served may hold the employee liable for damages. b. An employee may put an end to the relationship without serving any notice on the employer for any of the following just causes: 1. Serious insult by the employer or his representative on the honor and person of the employee; 2. Inhuman and unbearable treatment accorded the employee by the employer or his representative; 3. Commission of a crime or offense by the employer or his representative against the person of the employee or any of the immediate members of his family; and 4. Other causes analogous to any of the foregoing. Art. 286. When employment not deemed terminated. The bona-fide suspension of the operation of a business or undertaking for a period not exceeding six (6) months, or the fulfillment by the employee of a military or civic duty shall not terminate employment. In all such cases, the employer shall reinstate the employee to his former position without loss of seniority rights if he indicates his desire to resume his work not later than one (1) month from the resumption of operations of his employer or from his relief from the military or civic duty.
RETIREMENT FROM THE SERVICE
Art. 287. Retirement. Any employee may be retired upon reaching the retirement age established in the collective bargaining agreement or other applicable employment contract. In case of retirement, the employee shall be entitled to receive such retirement benefits as he may have earned under existing laws and any collective bargaining agreement and other agreements: Provided, however, That an employee’s retirement benefits under any collective bargaining and other agreements shall not be less than those provided therein. In the absence of a retirement plan or agreement providing for retirement benefits of employees in the establishment, an employee upon reaching the age of sixty (60) years or more, but not beyond sixty-five (65) years which is hereby declared the compulsory retirement age, who has served at least five (5) years in the said establishment, may retire and shall be entitled to retirement pay equivalent to at least one-half (1/2) month salary for every year of service, a fraction of at least six (6) months being considered as one whole year. Unless the parties provide for broader inclusions, the term ‘one-half (1/2) month salary’ shall mean fifteen (15) days plus one-twelfth (1/12) of the 13th month pay and the cash equivalent of not more than five (5) days of service incentive leaves. Retail, service and agricultural establishments or operations employing not more than ten (10) employees or workers are exempted from the coverage of this provision. Violation of this provision is hereby declared unlawful and subject to the penal provisions under Article 288 of this Code.
TRANSITORY AND FINAL PROVISIONS
PENAL PROVISIONS AND LIABILITIES
Art. 288. Penalties. Except as otherwise provided in this Code, or unless the acts complained of hinge on a question of interpretation or implementation of ambiguous provisions of an existing collective bargaining agreement, any violation of the provisions of this Code declared to be unlawful or penal in nature shall be punished with a fine of not less than One Thousand Pesos (P1,000.00) nor more than Ten Thousand Pesos (P10,000.00) or imprisonment of not less than three months nor more than three years, or both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the court. In addition to such penalty, any alien found guilty shall be summarily deported upon completion of service of sentence. Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, any criminal offense punished in this Code, shall be under the concurrent jurisdiction of the Municipal or City Courts and the Courts of First Instance. (As amended by Section 3, Batas Pambansa Bilang 70) Art. 289. Who are liable when committed by other than natural person. If the offense is committed by a corporation, trust, firm, partnership, association or any other entity, the penalty shall be imposed upon the guilty officer or officers of such corporation, trust, firm, partnership, association or entity. Title II PRESCRIPTION OF OFFENSES AND CLAIMS Art. 290. Offenses. Offenses penalized under this Code and the rules and regulations issued pursuant thereto shall prescribe in three (3) years. All unfair labor practice arising from Book V shall be filed with the appropriate agency within one (1) year from accrual of such unfair labor practice; otherwise, they shall be forever barred. Art. 291. Money claims. All money claims arising from employer-employee relations accruing during the effectivity of this Code shall be filed within three (3) years from the time the cause of action accrued; otherwise they shall be forever barred. All money claims accruing prior to the effectivity of this Code shall be filed with the appropriate entities established under this Code within one (1) year from the date of effectivity, and shall be processed or determined in accordance with the implementing rules and regulations of the Code; otherwise, they shall be forever barred. Workmen’s compensation claims accruing prior to the effectivity of this Code and during the period from November 1, 1974 up to December 31, 1974, shall be filed with the appropriate regional offices of the Department of Labor not later than March 31, 1975; otherwise, they shall forever be barred. The claims shall be processed and adjudicated in accordance with the law and rules at the time their causes of action accrued. Art. 292. Institution of money claims. Money claims specified in the immediately preceding Article shall be filed before the appropriate entity independently of the criminal action that may be instituted in the proper courts. Pending the final determination of the merits of money claims filed with the appropriate entity, no civil action arising from the same cause of action shall be filed with any court. This provision shall not apply to employees compensation case which shall be processed and determined strictly in accordance with the pertinent provisions of this Code.
TRANSITORY AND FINAL PROVISIONS
Art. 293. Application of law enacted prior to this Code. All actions or claims accruing prior to the effectivity of this Code shall be determined in accordance with the laws in force at the time of their accrual. Art. 294. Secretary of Labor to initiate integration of maternity leave benefits. Within six (6) months after this Code takes effect, the Secretary of Labor shall initiate such measures as may be necessary for the integration of maternity leave benefits into the Social Security System, in the case of private employment, and the Government Service Insurance System, in the case of public employment. Art. 295. Funding of the Overseas Employment Development Board and the National Seamen’s Board referred to in Articles 17 and 20, respectively, of this Code shall initially be funded out of the unprogrammed fund of the Department of Labor and the National Manpower and Youth Council. Art. 296. Termination of the workmen’s compensation program. The Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, Workmen’s Compensation Commission, and Workmen’s Compensation Units in the regional offices of the Department of Labor shall continue to exercise the functions and the respective jurisdictions over workmen’s compensation cases vested upon them by Act No. 3428, as amended, otherwise known as the Workmen’s Compensation Act until March 31, 1976. Likewise, the term of office of incumbent members of the Workmen’s Compensation Commission, including its Chairman and any commissioner deemed retired as of December 31, 1975, as well as the present employees and officials of the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation, Workmen’s Compensation Commission and the Workmen’s Compensation Units shall continue up to that date. Thereafter, said offices shall be considered abolished and all officials and personnel thereof shall be transferred to and mandatorily absorbed by the Department of Labor, subject to Presidential Decree No. 6, Letters of Instructions Nos. 14 and 14-A and the Civil Service Law and rules. Such amount as may be necessary to cover the operational expenses of the Bureau of Workmen’s Compensation and the Workmen’s Compensation Units, including the salaries of incumbent personnel for the period up to March 31, 1976 shall be appropriated from the unprogrammed funds of the Department of Labor. Art. 297. Continuation of insurance policies and indemnity bonds. All workmen’s compensation insurance policies and indemnity bonds for self-insured employers existing upon the effectivity of this Code shall remain in force and effect until the expiration dates of such policies or the lapse of the period of such bonds, as the case may be, but in no case beyond December 31, 1974. Claims may be filed against the insurance carriers and/or self-insured employers for causes of action which accrued during the existence of said policies or authority to self-insure. Art. 298. Abolition of the Court of Industrial Relations and the National Labor Relations Commission. The Court of Industrial Relations and the National Labor Relations Commission established under Presidential Decree No. 21 are hereby abolished. All unexpended funds, properties, equipment and records of the Court of Industrial Relations, and such of its personnel as may be necessary, are hereby transferred to the Commission and to its regional branches. All unexpended funds, properties and equipment of the National Labor Relations Commission established under Presidential Decree No. 21 are transferred to the Bureau of Labor Relations. Personnel not absorbed by or transferred to the Commission shall enjoy benefits granted under existing laws. Art. 299. Disposition of pending cases. All cases pending before the Court of Industrial Relations and the National Labor Relations Commission established under Presidential Decree No. 21 on the date of effectivity of this Code shall be transferred to and processed by the corresponding labor relations divisions or the National Labor Relations Commission created under this Code having cognizance of the same in accordance with the procedure laid down herein and its implementing rules and regulations. Cases on labor relations on appeal with the Secretary of Labor or the Office of the President of the Philippines as of the date of effectivity of this Code shall remain under their respective jurisdictions and shall be decided in accordance with the rules and regulations in force at the time of appeal. All workmen’s compensation cases pending before the Workmen’s Compensation Units in the regional offices of the Department of Labor and those pending before the Workmen’s Compensation Commission as of March 31, 1975, shall be processed and adjudicated in accordance with the law, rules and procedure existing prior to the effectivity of the Employees Compensation and State Insurance Fund. Art. 300. Personnel whose services are terminated. Personnel of agencies or any of their subordinate units whose services are terminated as a result of the implementation of this Code shall enjoy the rights and protection provided in Sections 5 and 6 of Republic Act numbered fifty-four hundred and thirty five and such other pertinent laws, rules and regulations. In any case, no lay-off shall be effected until funds to cover the gratuity and/or retirement benefits of those laid off are duly certified as available. Art. 301. Separability provisions. If any provision or part of this Code, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this code, or the application of such provision or part to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby. Art. 302. Repealing clause. All labor laws not adopted as part of this Code either directly or by reference are hereby repealed. All provisions of existing laws, orders, decrees, rules and regulations inconsistent herewith are likewise repealed. Done in the City of Manila, this 1st day of May in the year of our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy four.